Gita, Thirukkural and Kalidasa’s Sakuntalam have been hailed by savants all over the world as the cream of Indian thought and culture. Thirukkural (or the Kural) is a collection of 1330 Tamil couplets organised into 133 chapters. Not killing a creature is an act of kindness. [5] John Lazarus, a native missionary, revised Drew's work and completed the remaining portion, beginning from Chapter 64 through Chapter 133. ‘To kill’ is this, that ‘not to kill’; Whose souls the vision pure and passionless perceive. The first complete English translation by a native scholar was made the following year by V. V. S. Aiyar, who translated the entire work in prose. In 1856, Karl Graul translated the Kural into German, claiming that Kural is closer to the Christian preaching and offers a model of Tamil worldview. The word seven is taken in eight couplets / Kurals. Those who are free from blame and have the clear vision will not eat the meat of animals which have lost their life or which are slaughtered. In about 1730 AD, the Tamil Thirukkural was translated into Latin by Fr.Beschi, one of the … A couplet consists of seven, There are claims and counter claims as to the authorship of the book and to the exact number of couplets written by, . Pope's translation can be viewed from the website http://pm.tamil.net/pub/pm0153/trkrlpop.html?q=projectmadurai/pub/pm0153/trkrlpop.html. Graul might have subsumed the Jains also under the name of the Buddhists (Graul 1865: xi note). What is kindliness and its opposite? Authored by the ancient Tamil poet-philosopher Thiruvalluvar, it has been translated into at least 42 world languages, with about 57 different renderings in the English language alone. [2][11], At least 24 complete translations were available in the English language by the end of the twentieth century, by both native and non-native scholars. Easily search the 1330 Thirukkural verses and find the Kural you want online and on mobile. A, as its first of letters, every speech maintains; The "Primal Deity" is first through all the world's domains. It is the preservation of life, and its destruction (therefore) it is not right to eat that flesh (from which life has been taken away). Along with his own English prose translation, his publication contained the original Tamil text, the Tamil commentary by Parimelazhagar and Ramanuja Kavirayar's amplification of the commentary. Thirukural is praised with many names such as: Thirukkural is structured into 133 chapters, each containing 10 couplets, thus a total of 1330 couplets. Sankar Raju Naidu, S, thirukural in Hindi, Madras, 1958, Seshadri, K, thirukural in Hindi, Lucknow, 1982, Govindaraj Jain, Kural in verse, first two parts, New delhi, 1942, Jain, B.D, thirukural, thirupananthal, 1961, Khenand Rakar, thirukural, parts 1 and 2, Ajmer, 1924, Rajan Pillai, thirukural, Lucknow, 1976, Venkatakrishnan, M.G, thirukural, Trichy, 1964, , Thirukkural, Osaka, Japan, August 1981, Gundappa, L, thirukural (3 parts), Madras, 1960, Gundappa, L, thirukural dharma bhaga, Bangalore, 1955, Srinivas, P.S, thirukural with original couplets and translations in Kannada, Madurai, 1982, Srikanthaiah, B.M, Kural (selections in verses), bangalore, 1940, Graul, Charles, Kural of thiruvalluvar, Tranquebar, 1866, Veeramamunivar, thirukural (Books I and II), London, 1930, Dr.G.Soosai Ph.D,J.P.,P.P.N,P.K.T.,Thirukkural Kitab Murni Tamil Nadu.,Kuala Lumpur,1978 & 1991, Ismail, Hussein: thirukural sastera kalasik Tamil yang, Kuala Lumpur, 1967, Ramily Bin Thakir thirukural (in verses), Kuala Lumpur, 1964, Azhakathu Kurup, thirukural in verses, Trivandrum, 1875, Balakrishna Nair, G, Kural waith commentary, Part I, Trivandrum, 1963, Chellan Nadar, K, thirukural tharmanaskantam, Parassala, 1962, Damodaran Pillai,P, thirukural manikal, Trivandrum, 1951, Gopalakurup, Vennikulam, thirukural (first 2 parts in verse), Kottayam, 1960, Govinda Pillai, A, thirukural, Trivandrum, Thirukkural Malayalam Vivarthanam Published by DC Books Kottayam Written By S. Ramesan Nair, Kishrod, Dash Ch, thirukuralu-in oriya language, Sampalbur, 1985, Ram Murti Sharma, thirukural dhamma granth of the tamils, Chandigarh, 1983, Umadevi, Wandy Dynowskiev, thiruvalluvar kural, Madras, 1958, Kamala Gurg, thirukural needhi sastra, Jaipur, 1982, Glazov, J.J and Krishnamurthi, A, thirukural, a book on virtu, politics and love, Moscow, 1963, Ibragimov, A., Thirukural in couplets with illustrations, Moscow, 1974, Srirama Desikan, S.N, thirukural in Sanskrit slokas, Madras, 1961, 1968, Ram, S.S, Saurastra thirukural payiram - pitika pragaranam, Madurai, 1980, De Silva, Charles, Sirigiya (thirukural in sinhalese), Colombo, 1964, Sissigamy Govokgada, M, thirukural, Colombo, 1961, Frykholm Ingya, thirukural, Uddavalla, 1971, Jagannatha Sastri, Mudiganthi, thiruvalluva sookthalu, West Godavari, 1952, Lakshminarayana Sastri, Kural, chittoor, 1906, Kohan, Muhamad Yusuf, Kural in Urdu and Arabic, Madras, 1976, Surawathi Hasarat, Kural in Urdu, New Delhi, 1966. Dr. Karl Graul, who translated the Kural into German had this to say: "No translation can convey an idea of its (Thirukkural's) charming effect. [7] The 133 chapters are grouped into three sections:[7][8], Aram containes 380 verses, Porul with 700 and Inbam with 250. • Think and then undertake the work; to think after commencement will bring disgrace. Upon completion, Thiruvalluvar took the work (Thirukkural) to Madurai (Tamil Nadu, India) as per the prevailing practice of reading out new compositions in a public forum where critics and scholars would be present. Persons who are determined not to overlook moral disciplines will not take meat obtained by killing other species. The first translation of the Kural text appeared in Malayalam in 1595 CE under the title Tirukkural Bhasha by an unknown author. Tirukkural remains one of the most widely translated non-religious works in the world. An ancient Tamil didactic verse work. The menu is common for both Tamil and English versions. [10], The first English translation by a native scholar (i.e., scholar who is a native speaker of Tamil) was made in 1915 by T. Tirunavukkarasu, who translated 366 couplets into English. Tirukurali, Fiji, 2008, Aalto, Pentit, Kural - the ancient Tamil classic, Finland, 1972, Ariel, M, kural de thiruvalluvar (traduits du tamoul), Paris, 1848, Barrigue de, Fontaineu, G, le livre de l'amour de thiruvalluva, Paris, 1889, Danielou, Alain, thiruvallouvar kural, Pondicherry, 1942, Jacolliot, Louis, kural de thiruvalluvar, selections, Paris, 1767, Lamairesse, M, thirukural in French, Pondicherry, 1867, Gros, François, Le Livre de l'Amour, Gallimard, Collection UNESCO, Paris, 1992, Albrecht, Fenz and K. Lalithambal: thirukural von thiruvalluvar aus dem Tamil, Madurai, 1977, Cammera, A.F, thirukural waith German translation, Leipzig, 1803, Graul, Karl, der kural des thiruvalluvar, London, 1854, Graul, Karl, der tamu lische gnomes dichtar thiruvalluvar, Leipzig, 1865, Rickert, Friederich, thirukural, selections, Berlin, 1847, William and Norgate, Der kural des thiruvalluvar, 2nd ed, London, 1866. It is a historic achievement. Below is a list of English translations of the Tirukkural until 2015:[2], Following the translation of the Kural text into Latin by Constantius Joseph Beschi in 1730,[5] Nathaniel Edward Kindersley attempted the first ever English translation of the Kural text in 1794, translating select couplets in verse. It has been translated to various other languages. Diaz (2000) did a similar exercise by his objective was not the same. • Water will flow from a well in the sand in proportion to the depth to which it is dug, and knowledge will flow from a man in proportion to his learning. Pope who had spent many years in Tamil Nadu and translated many Tamil texts into English, which includes Thirukkural, have recognised Thiruvalluvar as a … Thirukkural in Tamil with English Translation by Kaviyogi Maharishi Shuddhananda Bharatiar. He thus covered chapters 1 through 63, translating 630 couplets. • Though the world goes round with many activities, it is dependent on agriculture. Pope's translation can be viewed from the website, http://pm.tamil.net/pub/pm0153/trkrlpop.html?q=projectmadurai/pub/pm0153/trkrlpop.html, Nalini Mohan, Sanyal, thirukural, Calcutta, 1939, Sastri, E.C., thirukural, Calcutta, 1974, , Hong Kong: Xianggang daxue chubanshe, Zvelebil, Kamil V, Thirukural (selections), Prague, 1952–1954, Kat, D, Thirukural (selections), Netherlands, 1964, Aiyar, V.V.S, Kural_: Maxims of thiruvalluvar, 4th ed, Madras, 1961, Balasubramanian, K.M, Thirukural of thiruvalluvar, Madras, 1962, Chakravarthi, A, thirukural in English with commentary, Madras, 1953, Drew, H.W., The kural of thiruvalluvar with commentary of Parimelazhakar, Madras, 1840, Drew, H.W. Holy Kural - Thirukkural in Tamil with English Translations by Thiruvalluvar Thirukkural (or the Kural) is a collection of 1330 Tamil couplets organised into 133 chapters. [citation needed] Most of the Researchers and great Tamil Scholars like George Uglow Pope or G.U. Foreign writers who translated it into English and other European languages said it is like the Bible for the Tamils. The Tamil classic, Thirukkural (Sacred Couplets), has been translated into many major languages of the world. A lot of software are available these days for installing Kurals in desktops. [2] It was authored by Thiruvalluvar, and is considered to be the first work to focus on ethics in Dravidian literature. The couplet and its meaning have been translated by Pope and only the meaning has been given by Yogi Suddananda Bharathi. Virtue and Wealth. What people are saying - Write a review. [7] While Aram and Inbam discuss about ethical living in private life, Porul deals with public matters.[7]. Hence, though laborious, farming is the foremost activity. The German version was published both at London and Leipzig. Indian, English and French scholars have translated Thirukkural. The first instance of the author's name mentioned as Thiruvalluvar is found to be several centuries later in a song of praise called Garland of Thiruvalluvar in Thiruvalluva Malai.[5]. Pope who had spent many years in Tamil Nadu and translated many Tamil texts into English, which includes Thirukkural, have recognised Thiruvalluvar as a Paraiyar. Other translations of Thirukkural. Pope who had spent many years in Tamil Nadu and translated many Tamil texts into English, which includes Thirukkural, have recognised Thiruvalluvar as a Paraiyar. The killing of animals is veritable hardness of heart; but the eating of their flesh is inequity indeed. THIRUKKURAL ENGLISH COUPLET (ISBN-978-93-88139-60-1) “No one has so far attempted to present the translation of Tirukkural in English language in the way Dr. Loie has done. The first instance of the author's name mentioned as Thiruvalluvar is found to be several centuries later in a song of praise called, (1814–1864) had already by 1855 characterized the Tirukkural as 'a work of Buddhist hue'. • As water changes (its nature), from the nature of the soil (in which it flows), so will the character of men resemble that of their associates. This work is widely revered and accepted in many parts of the world. Graul might have subsumed the Jains also under the name of the Buddhists (Graul 1865: xi note). The good ones, free from the three kinds of blemishes (desires) and possessed of unalloyed wisdom will hold dead bodies as corpses and will not eat the flesh. It is said that to the amazement of the critics, the Sangam Plank shrunk itself in size to hold only the Kural manuscript and in the process throwing out the rest. Each chapter contains 10 couplets. His commentary (Urai) give us an idea of the amount of information contained in each and every kural. According to the LIFCO Tamil-Tamil-English dictionary, the Tamil word Kural means Venpa verse with two lines. Attributed to Thiruvalluvar, who probably lived between the 3 rd and 6 th The following table illustrates two different facets of a subject depicted by two Kural couplets from the same chapter and their different interpretations by various translators. Behold the men who have escaped from the bonds of illusion and ignorance: they eat not the flesh from which life hath flown out. In English Rev. Thirukkural comes under one of the four categories of, . Thirukkural has been translated into all the major languages of the World. Viewing the Kural in all languages. G.U Pope’s translation is very widely known. One of the earliest commentaries on the Thirukkural was by Parimelazhagar, belonging to the 12th century. The significance of this is that the greatness of a work is realized on the basis of not the weight of its manuscript (written on Palm leaves) but the divine qualities of the work which forced the plank to stay afloat. Attributed to Thiruvalluvar, who probably lived during the 2 nd or 3 rd century A.D., the Kural (as it is often referred) occupies a leading place amongst the wisdom literatures of the world. G.U Pope’s translation is very widely known. He spent more than forty years in Tamil Nadu and translated tamil literature in English. Eash couplet in Tamil has seven words. The Latin translation of Thirukkural made by Constanzo Beschi in 1730 did much to make known to European intellectuals the richness and beauty of Oriental Tamil literature. Thirukural English Translation and Commentary - by Rev Dr G U Pope, Rev W H Drew, Rev John Lazarus and Mr F W Ellis ] Introduction - … 34 (2): 449–482. While Gover translated only select couplets, Robinson translated the first two books of the Kural text. Men of wisdom freed from the error (of delusion) will not eat flesh carved out of a creature. Thirukkural was translated … Popley. The Tamil classic, Thirukkural (Sacred Couplets), has been translated into many major languages of the world. Tirukkural was first translated into Malayalam (titled Tirukkural Basha) by an anonymous writer in 1595 CE. Thirukural with Commentary by M.Karunanithi. Popley’s in blank verses (of five feet), K. M. Balasubramaniam’s in heptametric couplets and Robinson’s in tetrametre. The last paragraph gives brief but comprehensive details of Tamil studies all over the world. The one is non-killing, the other is killing; Not to kill is grace. • Avoid an act which you may repent later; If done by mistake, better not to repeat it. If you ask what charity is and what is not, they are non-killing and killing respectively; eating that (slaughtered) meat is unrighteousness (sin). There are many others who have translated Thirukkural completely or some parts of it. Thirukkural has been translated into English by 40 people. Balasubramaniam and others for the rest. English Translation & Commentary (in italics) PART I. VIRTUE 1.1 Introduction 1.1.1 The Praise of God 1. 1 Review. Translating the Kural. Thirukkural (Tamil: திருக்குறள் also known as the Kural) is a classic of couplets or Kurals (1330 rhyming Tamil couplets) or aphorisms [1] celebrated by Tamils. The Latin translation of Thirukkural made by Constanzo Beschi in 1730 did much to make known to European intellectuals the richness and beauty of Oriental Tamil literature. Aiyar's work is considered by various scholars, including Czech scholar Kamil Zvelebil, to be the most scholarly of all the English translations made until then, including those by native English scholars. Thiru + Kural = Thirukkural . What’s a grace, or lack of grace? This book called Thirukkural written by Thiruvalluvar about 2000 years ago in Tamil has been translated by Rev.G.U.Pope. [14], A stone inscription found on the walls of a well at the Periya palayathamman temple at, The original inscription in Tamil written in the, one of the most widely translated non-religious works, List of Tirukkural translations by language, "The Golden coin depicting Thiruvalluvar −2", "Volume 5: The Complete Works of Sri Aurobindo", http://www.redlotusworld.org/resources/Tirukkural.pdf, Tirukkural in Tamil and English—Valaitamil.com, G. U. Pope's English Translation of the Tirukkural, https://www.facebook.com/Tirukkural.in.6.languages/, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tirukkural_translations_into_English&oldid=992391349, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Made the first ever translation of the Kural text into English in a chapter titled 'Extracts from the Teroo-Vaulaver Kuddul, or, The Ocean of Wisdom' in his book, Translated 120 couplets in all—69 of them in verse and 51 in prose. Compassion warrants that one should not kill anybody and that too killing other creatures for food is more sinful. In English Rev. This is reflected in some of the other names by which the text is known: Tamil marai (Tamil Veda); poyyamozhi (words that never fail); and teyva nul or dheiva nool (divine text). Each chapter has a specific subject ranging from ", . For example, Thirukkural is a cir formed by combining the two words Thiru and Kural, i.e. The Thirukkural expounds on various aspects of life and is one of the most important works in the Tamil language. Thiruvalluvar (Author of Holy Kural - Thirukkural in Tamil with English Translations) Wise men who have clear mind will refrain from eating the flesh of a lifeless animal. "Corruption and Redemption: The Legend of Valluvar and Tamil Literary History". Therefore, no translation can do justice to the poetical brevity of the Kural and its delightful rhymes and repetitious words. What is compassion but refraining from killing; what is sin but eating flesh? Vedas . The Thirukkural expounds on various aspects of life and is one of the most important works in the Tamil language. It was translated into French by Monsieur Ariel in 1848. It is truly an apple of gold in the network of silver." Modern Asian Studies. One of the earliest commentaries on the Thirukkural was by Parimelazhagar, belonging to the 12th century. Each chapter has a specific subject ranging from "ploughing a piece of land" to "ruling a country". Benevolence is not to kill, and killing is lack of it. Translated only the first two sections, viz. Kalani, Kantilal L., thirukural in Gujarati, Bombay, 1971 (Gujarti - Philosopher - Writer in Gujarati Literature - [1930-1998]. It was translated into Latin by Constantius Joseph Beschi in 1730 (Ramasamy 2001). • Defer not virtue to another day; receive her now; and at the dying hour she will be your undying friend. The first complete verse translation in English and the first complete English translation by a single author was achieved in 1886 by George Uglow Pope, whose work brought the Tirukkural to a wider audience of the western world. Thirukkural is also translated into the Vakpoli language spoken by Nerikurvar. User Review - Flag as inappropriate. • True friends guard you from evil, make you walk in right path and share your sorrow in difficult times. • Excessive or deficient food or activity causes disorders in mobility, breathing and digestion. , and is considered to be the first work to focus on ethics in Dravidian literature. Tamil Wisdom, by Edward Jewitt Robinson, 1873. Thirukural is praised with many names such as:[6], Thirukkural is structured into 133 chapters, each containing 10 couplets, thus a total of 1330 couplets. Trilingual version with Tamil original and Malay and English versions translated by the translator. Though the author TIRU VALLUVAR has written a lot of common things acceptable to all the four oriental religions Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism, … - an^thaNar enbavar aRavOr - Kural ) is a single or a combination of more than 60 books translated. 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