Administration of pantothenic acid has been reported to significantly reduce oxidative stress and improved damage to the brain in gamma-irradiated rats [114]. Vitamin B9 is vital for brain health and provides support for the cardiovascular and nervous system in human [45]. Vitamin C. This water-soluble antioxidant is an essential dietary nutrient. Vitamin B6 is involved in red blood cell production, carbohydrate metabolism, liver detoxification, brain and nervous system health [43]. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 100 (2013): 243-249. Free radicals are any molecular species that contains an unpaired electron in an atomic orbital. A deficiency of these vitamins is also associated with oxidative stress-induced conditions like atherogenesis [7], and increased homocysteine, which increases cardiovascular risk [8]. Vitamin K has been reported to block the activation of 12-lipoxygenase in arachidonic acid-induced oxidative injury to developing oligodendrocytes [74], a report from the same research group showed that phylloquinone (vitamin K1) and menaquinone 4 (MK­4? Niacin (vitamin B3) acts as a coenzyme of redox enzymes in Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD) and Nicotinamide Mononucleotide (NMN) forms [109]. ... Vitamin C is an important antioxidant. One of the mechanisms suggested for its anti-cancer effect is through the induction of hydrogen peroxide in cell and depleting Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide [82]. Journal of Applied Toxicology 25 (2005): 440-443. Ability to inhibit iron-dependent lipid peroxidation in liposomes compared to cholesterol, ergosterol and tamoxifen and relevance to anticancer action. The body is able to synthesize 1 mg niacin from 60 mg of tryptophan in a chemical reaction that employs riboflavin and vitamin B-6 as coenzymes. Lushchak VI. Vitamin B5 or Pantothenic acid is from the Greek word “pantothen,” which means "on all sides" or "from all quarters." Vitamin C – ascorbic acid is one form of vitamin C that dissolves well in water. Collectively the eight compounds are called “tocochromanols,” and they are fat-soluble antioxidants. Vitamins as anti-mutagens: advantages and some possible mechanisms of anti-mutagenic action. Even though the body only needs small amounts, micronutrients are essential for good health. Gabe was experiencing fatigue, despite sleeping eight hours per night. Some vitamins synthesised from other sources in the body deviate from the usual definition of vitamins. Nutritional Optic Neuropathies. Liposomal Multivitamin with Active B-Complex, Minerals and Antioxidants has Liposomal Technology ensures high absorption of active ingredients. The subjects were 29,133 Finnish male smokers between the ages of 50 and 69. The protective role of folates in these diseases was suggested to be due to its antioxidant property [117, 128]. Gad A, Abu Hamed S, Khalifa M, et al. Free Radic. It also promotes iron metabolism and its deficiency increases the risk of anaemia as iron is an essential element for red blood cell production [37]. It also promotes iron metabolism, and its deficiency increases the risk of anaemia as iron is an essential element for red blood cell production [37]. Oxidative stress can contribute to the formation of advanced glycated end products, which could reduce vitamin B12 uptake [106, 107]. Provitamin A carotenoid are mainly present in sweet potato, carrots, spinach, kale, mustard greens, collard greens, turnip greens, Swiss chard, winter squash, Romaine lettuce, cantaloupe, broccoli, asparagus, sea vegetables, chili peppers, tomatoes, basil, papaya, shrimp, eggs, Brussels sprouts and grapefruit while Pre-formed vitamin A sources are- shrimp, eggs, cow’s milk, cheese, yoghurt, salmon, sardines, chicken, turkey, beef and lamb [23]. Phylloquinone), (Menaquinone) (Menadione). Also, the antioxidant property of vitamin B12 has a relationship with its ability to preserve glutathione. Shakeri H, Asemi Z, Samimi M, et al. sweet potato, carrots, spinach, kale, mustard greens, collard greens, turnip greens, Swiss chard, winter squash, Romaine lettuce, cantaloupe, broccoli, asparagus, sea vegetables, chili peppers, tomatoes, basil, papaya, shrimp, eggs, Brussels sprouts and grapefruit while Pre-formed vitamin A sources are- shrimp, eggs, cow’s milk, cheese, yoghurt, salmon, sardines, chicken, turkey, beef and lamb [23]. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is a prevalent nutritional supplement [48]. Gliszczynska-Swiglo A. Folates as antioxidants. Also, we have lima beans, oats, sesame seeds, kidney beans, peanuts, sweet potato, tofu, tuna, pineapple, oranges, broccoli, green beans, onions, collard greens, fortified cereals, dried beans, lean meats, soy foods and whole wheat grain. And fluidity of rat erythrocyte membranes J Nutr Sci Vitaminol ( Tokyo ) 29 ( 1983:. 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