[49] Mozart studied from this book, and it remained influential into the nineteenth century. [7][28] This excerpt opens at last entry of the exposition: the subject is sounding in the bass, the first countersubject in the treble, while the middle-voice is stating a second version of the second countersubject, which concludes with the characteristic rhythm of the subject, and is always used together with the first version of the second countersubject. According to Charles Rosen (1971, p. 503) "With the finale of 110, Beethoven re-conceived the significance of the most traditional elements of fugue writing. However, a stretto in which the subject/answer is heard in completion in all voices is known as stretto maestrale or grand stretto. Van Swieten, during diplomatic service in Berlin, had taken the opportunity to collect as many manuscripts by Bach and Handel as he could, and he invited Mozart to study his collection and encouraged him to transcribe various works for other combinations of instruments. Haydn then studied Handel's techniques and incorporated Handelian fugal writing into the choruses of his mature oratorios The Creation and The Seasons, as well as several of his later symphonies, including No. It was in the Baroque period that the writing of fugues became central to composition, in part as a demonstration of compositional expertise. 1 a : a musical composition in which one or two themes are repeated or imitated by successively entering voices and contrapuntally developed in a continuous interweaving of the voice parts The organist played a four-voiced fugue. In tonal music, invertible contrapuntal lines must be written according to certain rules because several intervallic combinations, while acceptable in one particular orientation, are no longer permissible when inverted. MD: The fugue reached its popular pinnacle during his time, but later Mozart, Beethoven, Shostakovich, Bartok, and many others composed from the rules, idioms, and turns of phrase he refined. Bach's Fugue in B♭ major from Book 1 of the Well Tempered Clavier explores the relative minor, the supertonic and the subdominant. [21] The countersubject, if sounding at the same time as the answer, is transposed to the pitch of the answer. Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free! ], would have come at the end of the Sequentia). In the first movement of his Fourth Symphony, starting at rehearsal mark 63, is a gigantic fugue in which the 20-bar subject (and tonal answer) consist entirely of semiquavers, played at the speed of quaver=168. Bach's most famous fugues are those for the harpsichord in The Well-Tempered Clavier, which many composers and theorists look at as the greatest model of fugue. Bach's work. [43] The fugue arose from the technique of "imitation", where the same musical material was repeated starting on a different note. See the full definition for fugue in the English Language Learners Dictionary, Nglish: Translation of fugue for Spanish Speakers, Britannica.com: Encyclopedia article about fugue. A fugue begins with the exposition and is written according to certain predefined rules; in later portions the composer has more freedom, though a logical key structure is usually followed. Fugue - A contrapuntal piece with spaced entries of a theme, usually in three or more parts. By the beginning of the Romantic era, fugue writing had become specifically attached to the norms and styles of the Baroque. In a letter to his sister Nannerl Mozart, dated in Vienna on 20 April 1782, Mozart recognizes that he had not written anything in this form, but moved by his wife's interest he composed one piece, which is sent with the letter. The second movement of a sonata da chiesa, as written by Arcangelo Corelli and others, was usually fugal. This allows the music to run smoothly. This in turn comes from Latin, also fuga, which is itself related to both fugere ("to flee") and fugare ("to chase"). One example of permutation fugue can be seen in the eighth and final chorus of J.S. Bach's influence extended forward through his son C.P.E. The word “fugue“ comes from the Italian “fuga“ meaning “flight“. Stravinsky recognized the compositional techniques of Bach, and in the second movement of his Symphony of Psalms (1930), he lays out a fugue that is much like that of the Baroque era. Have a look/listen to my fugue exposition: Fugue, in music, a compositional procedure characterized by the systematic imitation of a principal theme (called the subject) in simultaneously sounding melodic lines (counterpoint). See for example, variation 24 of Beethoven's Diabelli Variations Op. Mozart was evidently fascinated by these works and wrote a set of transcriptions for string trio of fugues from Bach's Well-Tempered Clavier, introducing them with preludes of his own. Learn more. Music A contrapuntal musical composition whose basic structure consists of a theme or themes stated successively in different voices. Fugues were most popular during the Baroque Period, ca. "Fugue" as a theoretical term first occurred in 1330 when Jacobus of Liege wrote about the fuga in his Speculum musicae. fugue meaning: 1. a piece of music consisting of three or more tunes played together: 2. a piece of music…. 20, 1772), of which three have fugal finales. [7], A simple fugue has only one subject, and does not utilize invertible counterpoint. How to use a word that (literally) drives some pe... Do you know these earlier meanings of words? [31], The closing section of a fugue often includes one or two counter-expositions, and possibly a stretto, in the tonic; sometimes over a tonic or dominant pedal note. 1. There are fugal sections in Beethoven's early piano sonatas, and fugal writing is to be found in the second and fourth movements of the Eroica Symphony (1805). [23], The first answer must occur as soon after the initial statement of the subject as possible; therefore the first codetta is often extremely short, or not needed. Amadeus Press. [42] It was not until the 16th century that fugal technique as it is understood today began to be seen in pieces, both instrumental and vocal. 1 and 3. The use of this format is generally inspired by Johann Sebastian Bach's two books of preludes and fugues — The Well-Tempered … Writing in 1555, Nicola Vicentino, for example, suggests that: the composer, having completed the initial imitative entrances, take the passage which has served as accompaniment to the theme and make it the basis for new imitative treatment, so that "he will always have material with which to compose without having to stop and reflect". Although certain related keys are more commonly explored in fugal development, the overall structure of a fugue does not limit its harmonic structure. fugue (fyo͞og) [Ital.,=flight], in music, a form of composition in which the basic principle is imitative counterpoint counterpoint, in music, the art of combining melodies each of which is independent though forming part of a homogeneous texture. In music, a fugue (/fjuːɡ/) is a contrapuntal compositional technique in two or more voices, built on a subject (a musical theme) that is introduced at the beginning in imitation (repetition at different pitches) and which recurs frequently in the course of the composition. In the fugues of earlier composers (notably, Buxtehude and Pachelbel), middle entries in keys other than the tonic and dominant tend to be the exception, and non-modulation the norm. 50 No. In music, a fugue is a contrapuntal compositional technique in two or more voices, built on a subject that is introduced at the beginning in imitation and recurs frequently in the course of the composition. Fugue - Musical Definition. When the answer is an exact copy of the subject to the new key, with identical intervals to the first statement, it is classified as a real answer; if the intervals are altered to maintain the key it is a tonal answer. A fughetta is a short fugue that has the same characteristics as a fugue. [15] Furthermore, in some fugues the entry of one of the voices may be reserved until later, for example in the pedals of an organ fugue (see J.S. Later, Mozart incorporated fugal writing into his opera Die Zauberflöte and the finale of his Symphony No. [18], The counter-exposition is a second exposition. [1], In the Middle Ages, the term was widely used to denote any works in canonic style; by the Renaissance, it had come to denote specifically imitative works. A fugue is a piece of music written for a certain number of parts (voices). Further entries of the subject, or middle entries, occur throughout the fugue. Under the employment of Archbishop Colloredo, and the musical influence of his predecessors and colleagues such as Johann Ernst Eberlin, Anton Cajetan Adlgasser, Michael Haydn, and his own father, Leopold Mozart at the Salzburg Cathedral, the young Mozart composed ambitious fugues and contrapuntal passages in Catholic choral works such as Mass in C minor, K. 139 "Waisenhaus" (1768), Mass in C major, K. 66 "Dominicus" (1769), Mass in C major, K. 167 "in honorem Sanctissimae Trinitatis" (1773), Mass in C major, K. 262 "Missa longa" (1775), Mass in C major, K. 337 "Solemnis" (1780), various litanies, and vespers. A widespread view of the fugue is that it is not a musical form but rather a technique of composition.[68]. [51], The second movement of Maurice Ravel's piano suite Le Tombeau de Couperin (1917) is a fugue that Roy Howat (200, p. 88) describes as having "a subtle glint of jazz". )[34][36], A counter-fugue is a fugue in which the first answer is presented as the subject in inversion (upside down), and the inverted subject continues to feature prominently throughout the fugue. [60] Béla Bartók's Music for Strings, Percussion and Celesta (1936) opens with a slow fugue that Pierre Boulez (1986, pp. Then, many modern fugues dispense with traditional tonal harmonic scaffolding altogether, and either use serial (pitch-oriented) rules, or (as the Kyrie/Christe in György Ligeti's Requiem, Witold Lutosławski works), use panchromatic, or even denser, harmonic spectra. [44] Palestrina's imitative motets differed from fugues in that each phrase of the text had a different subject which was introduced and worked out separately, whereas a fugue continued working with the same subject or subjects throughout the entire length of the piece. Permutation fugue describes a type of composition (or technique of composition) in which elements of fugue and strict canon are combined. Gioseffo Zarlino, a composer, author, and theorist in the Renaissance, was one of the first to distinguish between the two types of imitative counterpoint: fugues and canons (which he called imitations). The earliest fugues, in both the symphonies and in the Baryton trios, exhibit the influence of Joseph Fux's treatise on counterpoint, Gradus ad Parnassum (1725), which Haydn studied carefully. In some fugues, the exposition will end with a redundant entry, or an extra presentation of the theme. [7][15] Each episode has the primary function of transitioning for the next entry of the subject in a new key,[15] and may also provide release from the strictness of form employed in the exposition, and middle-entries. Twentieth-century composers brought fugue back to its position of prominence, realizing its uses in full instrumental works, its importance in development and introductory sections, and the developmental capabilities of fugal composition. Invertible counterpoint is essential to permutation fugues but is not found in simple fugues.[40]. The term fugue may also be used to describe a work or part of a work. Accessed 25 Jan. 2021. Many composers have written works of this kind. Dimitri Shostakovich's 24 Preludes and Fugues is the composer's homage to Bach's two volumes of The Well-Tempered Clavier. When this interval is inverted ("C" in the upper voice above "G" in the lower), it forms a fourth, considered a dissonance in tonal contrapuntal practice, and requires special treatment, or preparation and resolution, if it is to be used. False entries are often abbreviated to the head of the subject, and anticipate the "true" entry of the subject, heightening the impact of the subject proper. At the micro level of the individual lines, and there are dozens and dozens of them in this music...there’s an astonishing detail and finesse, but the overall macro effect is a huge overwhelming and singular experience. fugue; Ger. Often the contrapuntal writing is not strict, and the setting less formal. It is not to be confused with a fuguing tune, which is a style of song popularized by and mostly limited to early American (i.e. Definition/History A fugue is a highly evolved form of imitative counterpoint. The young Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart studied counterpoint with Padre Martini in Bologna. shape note or "Sacred Harp") music and West Gallery music. [33], A double fugue has two subjects that are often developed simultaneously. Haydn, for example, taught counterpoint from his own summary of Fux and thought of it as the basis for formal structure. [48] Fux's work was largely based on the practice of Palestrina's modal fugues. A daily challenge for crossword fanatics. Wicker. The composer Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (1525?–1594) wrote masses using modal counterpoint and imitation, and fugal writing became the basis for writing motets as well. The exposition usually concludes when all voices have given a statement of the subject or answer. The English term fugue originated in the sixteenth century and is derived from the French word fugue or the Italian fuga. [15], A tonal answer is usually called for when the subject begins with a prominent dominant note, or where there is a prominent dominant note very close to the beginning of the subject. [12] The adjectival form is fugal. "[55], Fugal passages are also found in the Missa Solemnis and all movements of the Ninth Symphony, except the third. 'Nip it in the butt' or 'Nip it in the bud'. [65], Benjamin Britten used a fugue in the final part of The Young Person's Guide to the Orchestra (1946). “Fugue.” Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/fugue. A fugue, musically, is "a composition, or compositional technique, in which a theme (or themes) is extended and developed mainly by imitative counterpoint" (Grove Concise Dictionary of Music). Slippery Words Quiz—Changing with the Times. 13, and No. [2] Since the 17th century,[3] the term fugue has described what is commonly regarded as the most fully developed procedure of imitative counterpoint.[4]. Please tell us where you read or heard it (including the quote, if possible). This term is used to express the appearance of the subject of a fugue in notes of double the original value, e.g. 131 that several commentators regard as one of the composer's greatest achievements. Countersubject definition, a theme in a fugue that occurs simultaneously with the second and often the subsequent themes of the main subject. In music, a fugue is a contrapuntal compositional technique in two or more voices, built on a subject (theme) that is introduced at the beginning in imitation (repetition at different pitches) and recurs frequently in the course of the composition. During the Classical era, the fugue was no longer a central or even fully natural mode of musical composition. This is related to the idea that restrictions create freedom for the composer, by directing their efforts. 88, No. Definition of fugue. The form evolved during the 18th century from several earlier types of contrapuntal compositions, such as imitative ricercars, capriccios, canzonas, and fantasias. A fugue is a piece of music written for a certain number of parts (voices).It is a type of counterpoint with a precisely defined structure. Felix Mendelssohn wrote many fugues inspired by his study of the music of J.S. [15] Episodic material is always modulatory and is usually based upon some element heard in the exposition. [15] To prevent an undermining of the music's sense of key, this note is transposed up a fourth to the tonic rather than up a fifth to the supertonic. They must state the subject or answer at least once in its entirety, and may also be heard in combination with the countersubject(s) from the exposition, new countersubjects, free counterpoint, or any of these in combination. The word “fugue“ comes from the Italian “fuga“ meaning “flight“. Fugue - Definition (Artopium's Music Dictionary) A form of composition popular in, but not restricted to, the Baroque era, in which a theme or subject is introduced by one voice, and is imitated by other voices The Henry Purcell's theme is triumphantly cited at the end making it a choral fugue. One of the famous examples of such non-modulating fugue occurs in Buxtehude's Praeludium (Fugue and Chaconne) in C, BuxWV 137. Episodes (if applicable) and entries are usually alternated until the "final entry" of the subject, by which point the music has returned to the opening key, or tonic, which is often followed by closing material, the coda. 101 and A♭ major Op. Fugues were incorporated into a variety of musical forms. Joseph Kerman (1966, p. 330) calls it "this most moving of all fugues". Instead, I have sheltered behind the form of the Fugue. [46] The most influential text was Johann Joseph Fux's Gradus Ad Parnassum ("Steps to Parnassus"), which appeared in 1725. [39] So for example, the fugue of Bach's Passacaglia and Fugue in C minor, BWV 582 is not purely a permutation fugue, as it does have episodes between permutation expositions. The last movement of his Cello Sonata, Op. Ratz stressed, however, that this is the core, underlying form ("Urform") of the fugue, from which individual fugues may deviate. Sometimes the answer to the subject of a fugue is introduced by inversion—as in Nos. Canons and Imitations are often constructed in this way. 41. [citation needed] Anton Bruckner and Gustav Mahler also included them in their respective symphonies. 'All Intensive Purposes' or 'All Intents and Purposes'? Sullivan (1927, p. 235) hears it as "the most superhuman piece of music that Beethoven has ever written. Further entries of the subject follow this initial exposition, either immediately (as for example in Fugue No. While the answer is being stated, the voice in which the subject was previously heard continues with new material. Haydn's second fugal period occurred after he heard, and was greatly inspired by, the oratorios of Handel during his visits to London (1791–1793, 1794–1795). (ed.). Psychiatry A dissociative state, usually caused by trauma, marked by sudden travel or wandering away from home and an … Simple rounds such as "Three Blind Mice" or "Row, Row, Row Your Boat" could be called fugues for children, but a true fugue can be long and extremely complex. [37] Examples include Contrapunctus V through Contrapunctus VII, from Bach's The Art of Fugue.[38]. The finale of Beethoven's Hammerklavier Sonata contains a fugue, which was practically unperformed until the late 19th century, due to its tremendous technical difficulty and length. Psychiatry A dissociative state, usually caused by trauma, marked by sudden travel or wandering away from home and an inability to … "[70] In presenting Bach's fugues as among the greatest of contrapuntal works, Peter Kivy points out that "counterpoint itself, since time out of mind, has been associated in the thinking of musicians with the profound and the serious"[71] and argues that "there seems to be some rational justification for their doing so."[72]. Here each … This limitation exists in consequence of sheer proportionality: the more voices in a fugue, the greater the number of possible permutations. If this new material is reused in later statements of the subject, it is called a countersubject; if this accompanying material is only heard once, it is simply referred to as free counterpoint. 2 is a fugue, and there are fugal passages in the last movements of his Piano Sonatas in A major, Op. [63], György Ligeti wrote a five-part double fugue[clarification needed] for his Requiem's second movement, the Kyrie, in which each part (SMATB) is subdivided in four-voice "bundles" that make a canon. The fugue is a type of polyphonic composition or compositional technique based on a principal theme (subject) and melodic lines (counterpoint) that imitate the principal theme.The fugue is believed to have developed from the canon which appeared during the 13th century. [25] Arrival in E♭ major is marked by a quasi perfect cadence across the bar line, from the last quarter note beat of the first bar to the first beat of the second bar in the second system, and the first middle entry. Some fugues during the Baroque period were pieces designed to teach contrapuntal technique to students. During his early career in Vienna, Beethoven attracted notice for his performance of these fugues. as in Kyrie Eleison of Mozart's Requiem in D minor or the fugue of Bach's Passacaglia and Fugue in C minor, BWV 582), and (b) a fugue in which all subjects have their own expositions at some point, and they are not combined until later (see for example, the three-subject Fugue No. (In other words, the subject and countersubjects must be capable of being played both above and below all the other themes without creating any unacceptable dissonances.) Bach's cantata, Himmelskönig, sei willkommen, BWV 182. A brief codetta is often heard connecting the various statements of the subject and answer. Here, bach has altered the second countersubject to accommodate the change of mode canons and Imitations often! In three symphonies ( No fugue does not limit its harmonic structure to. 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